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Poetry: February 04, 2009 Issue [#2873]
<< January 28, 2009Poetry Archives | More From This Day | Print This IssueFebruary 11, 2009 >>

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Poetry


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  Edited by: redridinghoo
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Table of Contents

1. About this Newsletter
2. A Word from our Sponsor
3. Letter from the Editor
4. Editor's Picks
5. A Word from Writing.Com
6. Ask & Answer
7. Removal instructions

About This Newsletter



***Check out the feedback section below for a new feature I've added to my newsletters.***


All slang is metaphor, and all metaphor is poetry.

G.K. Chesterton (1874 - 1936)


One ought, every day at least, to hear a little song, read a good poem, see a fine picture, and if it were possible, to speak a few reasonable words.



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Letter from the editor



Welsh Poetry Forms



I’ll keep this introduction brief, as there is a gigantic amount of information to follow. In brief, my kids and I are going on culture quests throughout the year and February is the culture of Wales. Lucky me, I get to investigate their poetry traditions. *Delight*

There are many forms and variations that can claim an ancestry to Wales.


The Awdl Forms

~*~Cyhydedd Hir
Number of lines: 8
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic--5, 5, 5, 4, 5, 5, 5, 4
Rhyme scheme: aaabcccb

~*~Cyhydedd Naw Ban
Number of lines: Poet’s choice
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—9 each line
Rhyme scheme: Poet’s choice but must include at least one rhyming couplet.

~*~Cyhydedd Fer
Number of lines: 2
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—8 each line
Rhyme scheme: aa (If more than one stanza you can continue aa, or progress to bb, cc, etc.)

~*~Gwawdodyn
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—9, 9, 10, 9
Rhyme scheme: aaba, this form uses end rhyme and a choice of either internal rhyme or a type of internal/cross rhyme. The end rhymes are for lines 1, 2, and 4. This is constant.

Line 3 presents a choice. You can have an internal rhyme anywhere in that line that rhymes with the end syllable. Alternately, you can choose the internal/cross rhyme version, then line 3’s rhyme will be before the last syllable, in both line 3 (which would be syllable 9) and line 4 (which would be syllable 8).

~*~Gwawdodyn Hir
Number of lines: 6
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—9, 9, 9, 9, 10, 9
Rhyme scheme: aaaaba, this form uses end rhyme and a choice of either internal rhyme or a type of internal/cross rhyme. The end rhymes are for lines 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6. This is constant.

Line 5 presents a choice. You can have an internal rhyme anywhere in that line that rhymes with the end syllable. Alternately, you can choose the internal/cross rhyme version, then line 5’s rhyme will be before the last syllable, in both line 3 (which would be syllable 9) and line 6 (which would be syllable 8).

~*~Rhupunt
Number of lines: 3, 4, or 5 (but when you pick one, stick with it throughout the poem)
Number of stanzas: 4
Meter: Syllabic—4 each line
Rhyme scheme: 3-line: aab ccb ddb eeb; 4-line: aaab cccb dddb eeeb; 5-line: aaaab, ccccb, ddddb, eeeeb.
Of note: The formatting of this form is not set in stone and can be played with in the area of number of lines and stanzas. Meter and rhyme scheme should be consistent.

~*~Tawddgyrch Cadwynog
Number of lines: 3, 4, or 5
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—4 each line
Rhyme scheme: abba for first 2 stanzas, then cddc for 2 stanzas, and so on until your poem is complete.

~*~Cyrch A Chwta
Number of lines: 8
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 each line
Rhyme scheme: End rhyme and a cross rhyme (a form of internal rhyme). End rhyme: aaaaaaba. The “b” in the seventh line is cross-rhymed in the eighth line in either the third, fourth, or fifth syllable. Visual below (s=syllable):

ssssssA
ssssssA
ssssssA
ssssssA
ssssssA
ssssssA
ssssssB

And the last line can be any one of the following:

ssBsssA
or
sssBssA
or
ssssBsA

~*~Toddaid
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—10, 9, 10, 9
Rhyme scheme: abcb; this form uses end rhyme and cross rhyme. There is end rhyme in lines 2 and 4 (this is constant), and cross rhyme in all lines. For the cross rhyme: in line 1 a syllable toward the end of the line (you pick which syllable) is rhymed in the middle section of line 2. Then in line 3, a syllable is taken from the end of the line (again, you pick which syllable), and is then rhymed with a syllable in the middle section of line 4.

~*~Toddaid Byr
Number of lines: 2
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—10, 6
Rhyme scheme: ab; this form uses cross rhyme. The seventh syllable of line 1 rhymes with the last syllable of line 2, and the last syllable of line 1 rhymes with the first syllable of line 2.

~*~Byr A Thoddaid
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—8, 8, 10, 6
Rhyme scheme: aacb; end rhyme for the first two lines then for the third line it has an internal rhyme at the eighth syllable that rhymes with the fourth line’s last syllable. At the end of the third line we have another rhyme that makes an echo of sound, in the form of alliteration or some type of rhyme) in either the first, second, or third syllable of the fourth line. Here’s a visual for that (s=syllable).

sssssssA
sssssssA
sssssssBsc
sscssB or
scsssB or
cssssB

The final line is a choice between one of the last three shown above (not all of them).

~*~Clogyrnach
Number of lines: 6 or 5
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—8, 8, 5, 5, 3,3 OR 8, 8, 5, 5, 6
Rhyme scheme: aabbba; If you choose the 5 line version then the last two lines of the rhyme scheme become an internal rhyme (b) and an end rhyme (a). In the five line version you are placing your two 3 syllable lines together on one line with the rhyme rules intact.

~*~Hir A Thoddaid
Number of lines: 6
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic--10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 9
Rhyme scheme: aaaaba, this form uses end rhyme and cross rhyme. Lines 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 all rhyme. Line 5 takes a rhyme that is a syllable toward the end of the line, not necessarily the last syllable, and cross rhymes it with a syllable in the middle of line 6. This doesn’t have to be as precise as some forms, just pick a syllable that is in the middle section of line 6, and in the end section of line 5.


The Cywydd Forms


~*~Awdl Gywydd
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 each line
Rhyme scheme: This form employs end rhyme, as well as, cross rhyme. There are three choices on how you can place your cross rhyme. This cross rhyme must be in either the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the next line. This is easier to understand visually below (s=syllable):

ssssssA
ssAsssB
ssssssC
ssCsssB

OR

ssssssA
sssAssB
ssssssC
sssCssB

OR

ssssssA
ssssAsB
ssssssC
ssssCsB

There are no rules that say you have to pick one placement and stick with it, just that the cross rhyme must be in either the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the next line. Stick with one or mix it up, whatever works best for your poem.

~*~Devair Hirion
Number of lines: Poet’s choice, but in sets of couplets
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 each line.
Rhyme scheme: aa
Of note: This form further requires that the first line ends in a stressed syllable, and the second line of the couplet ends in an unstressed syllable.

~*~Devair Fyrion
Number of lines: Poet’s choice, but in sets of couplets
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—8 each line.
Rhyme scheme: aa

~*~Llosgyrnog
Number of lines: 6
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—8, 8, 7, 8, 8, 7
Rhyme scheme: aabccb, this form uses end rhyme and cross rhyme. See cross rhyme visual below (s=syllable).

xxxxxxxA
xxxxxxxA
xxxAxxB
xxxxxxxC
xxxxxxxC
xxxCxxB


The Englyn Forms

~*~Englyn Cyrch
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 each line
Rhyme scheme: aaba; this is another form that uses both end rhyme and cross rhyme. Lines 1, 2, and 4 are end rhymes with each other. Line 3’s rhyme is cross rhymed into the end section of line 4 (poet’s choice, except for the last syllable which must rhyme with the ends of line 1 and 2).

~*~Englyn Milwr
Number of lines: 3
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 in each line
Rhyme scheme: aaa (but if more than one stanza change to bbb, ccc, etc.); This form allows either consonance or rhyming of the three end sounds.
Of note: This form was often used to talk about war, soldiers, military victories, etc.

~*~Englyn Unodl Union
Number of lines: 3 or 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—6, 10, 7 or 6, 10, 7, 7
Rhyme scheme: aba or abaa; this is yet another form that uses both end rhyme and cross rhyme. Lines 1, 3, and 4 (or just 1 and 3 for the three line version) are end rhymes with each other. The seventh syllable of line 2 is rhymed with the ends of lines 1, 3, and 4. The last syllable of line 2 is cross rhymed into the beginning section of line 1 (poet’s choice on which syllable, just make sure it is close to the beginning of the line).


~*~Englyn Unodl Crwca
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7, 7, 10, 6
Rhyme scheme: aaba; this is another form that uses both end rhyme and cross rhyme. Lines 1, 2, and 4 are end rhymes with each other. The seventh syllable of line 3 is rhymed with the ends of lines 1, 2, and 4. The last syllable of line 3 is cross rhymed into the beginning section of line 4 (poet’s choice on which syllable, just make sure it is close to the beginning of the line).
Of note: This form and the Englyn Unodl Union (4 line version) are mirror images of each other.

~*~Englyn Proest Dalgron
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 in each line
Rhyme scheme: aaaa; avoid full rhymes and choose to utilize slant rhyme, assonance, or consonance.

~*~Englyn Lleddfbroest
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 in each line
Rhyme scheme: Diphthongs. Diphthongs are special letter combination sounds that occur in some languages. Since the English language doesn’t really have anything that is like this, the poet can choose to use similar letter combinations that occur in English instead. They are: oe, wy, ei, ae. It is the closest we can get to replicate this form, short of writing it in Welsh instead.

~*~Englyn Proest Gadwynog
Number of lines: 4
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—7 in each line
Rhyme scheme: abab with further instructions. This form uses end rhyme with a twist. Lines 1 and 3 are full rhymes with each other. Lines 2 and 4 use consonance to link them in sound, but they must also be a consonance rhyme of lines 1 and 3, too.

~*~Englyn Penfyr
Number of lines: 3
Number of stanzas: Poet’s choice
Meter: Syllabic—10, 7, 7
Rhyme scheme: baa; this is still another form that uses both end rhyme and cross rhyme. Lines 2 and 3 contain the end rhyme. The ninth syllable of line 1 is cross rhymed in the beginning section of line 2 (poet’s choice on which syllable, just make sure it is close to the beginning of the line).


All these forms can be used by themselves, or combined with each other. Fool around with each one for a bit, and then try to mix and match them to see which ones like to play with each other the best.


Sources:

The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Edited by Ales Preminger and T. V. F. Brogan. 1993.

Turco, Lewis. The Book of Forms. 3rd. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2000.




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Editor's Picks



Theme: Some examples of Welsh poetry forms here on W.com


 Invalid Item  []

by A Guest Visitor

 Invalid Item  []

by A Guest Visitor

 The Alpha in the Omega  [ASR]
Just how will the world end, or will it? (Englyn Unodl Union)
by ElaineElaine

 Dolphins' Dance  [E]
A englyn unodl crwc that won the January 12 Writer's Cramp.
by MadLoveForShannon

 She Loved Me  [13+]
Written for Roobear's Writing Workshop: This form is called the Englyn Unodl Crwc
by Dr Taher writes again!

 Winter Loon  [13+]
My attempt at an Englyn Unodl Crwc (just try to pronounce it) for Writer's Cramp.
by winklett

Dolphin Dance  [E]
For Writer's Cramp poetry week - an Englyn Unodl Crwc
by Sophurky

 Silent Longing  [E]
Englyn Penfyr written for Writers Cramp.
by Diane

 
Autumn Leaves  [E]
Englyn Unodl Union poetry prompt about Autumn.
by Cubby


AND an echo verse sent in response to last month's newsletter. Can you see where the author has placed the echo?

alas! Jerusalem  [13+]
written as an Echo Verse, a political poem about the Mid-East
by alfred booth, wanbli ska


 
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Ask & Answer



I've decided to use The Practice of Poetry: Writing Exercises From Poets Who Teach: ($12.99 from Amazon.Com) (a book of exercises from practicing poets who also teach poetry) in order to hone my skills.

Every month I will share a synopsis of one of the exercises I want to try. If you also try the exercise, please feel free to share it with me and the Poetry newsletter subscribers. If you send me a link to your item, I shall place that link in this section next month.

The exercise I will try this month comes from chapter one, called Translations: Idea to Image by Carol Muske

Select an abstract idea like: death, justice, or solitude. Think of this abstract idea and write down any images that come to mind, even if it seems silly. Muske says, "this is the minds 'translation' of an idea, an abstract concept to a mental picture, an image."

1. Write down your images (No thinking too hard, just let the images come--5 minutes at the most).
2. Circle the most vivid.
3. Play with the images.
4. See what poetry emerges.

~*~

NOW on to the feedback from last month's newsletter:



Submitted By: fyndorian
Submitted Comment:

Awesome newsletter with great info, super ideas...thanks for giving my muse a kick!


Submitted By: troubadour
Submitted Comment:

I'm all for new forms, and frequently your newsletters give me a new direction. I've taken up the Echo Verse and included one here which might be of interest in the next newsletter. Thanks, troubadour


NOTE: You can see that poem above in the editor's picks.


Thank you all for your continued feedback. It gives added energy to my research for more poetry information!



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